What is lung cancer- Lung cancer develops when cells in the lungs divide out of control, resulting in tumor growth. Tumors can make it hard for a person to breath and can spreading to other parts of the organ.
What is Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is a cancer that starts in the lungs and spreads throughout the body. Your lungs are 2 spongy organs in your chest that take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide as you breathe in and out.
Lung cancer is the most common cancer-related death worldwide.
Lung cancer is most common in smokers, although it can also strike persons that have never smoked. The amount of time and number of cigarettes you smoke raises your risk of lung cancer. Even if you have been smoking for a long time, quitting smoking can greatly reduce your risk of lung cancer.
Lung Cancer Symptom-
In the early stages of lung cancer, there are usually no signs or symptoms. Lung cancer signs and symptoms usually appear when the disease has progressed.
Lung cancer signs and symptoms include:
- Coughing up blood
- Shortness of breath
- Chest pain
- Losing weight
- Bone pain
Who is at risk for lung cancer?
Lung cancer can strike anyone, however several things increase your chances of acquiring it:
- Smoking. It is the most significant lung cancer health risk. Tobacco smoking is responsible for roughly 9 out of 10 incidences of lung cancer in males and 8 out of 10 cases in women. Lung cancer is more likely to develop the earlier you begin smoking, the longer you smoke, but the more smokes you smoke every day. If you smoking a lot, drink a lot of alcohol, or take beta carotene pills, your risk increases. If you stopped smoking, your lung cancer risk is lower than if you continued to smoke.
- You are treated to same cancer-causing chemicals as smokers when you smoke it, even if in low amounts.
- Lung cancer in the family
- Workplace exposure to asbestos, arsenic, chromium, beryllium, nickel, soot, or tar
- Radiation exposure, such as from a nuclear power plant
- Breast or chest radiation treatment
- Radon in the workplace or at home
- CT scans are one example of imaging testing.
- Infection with HIV
- Environmental pollution
Types of lung Cancer
Most lung malignancies begin in the bronchial lining (breathing tube). Lung cancer can also develop in glands beneath the bronchial lining, most commonly in the lungs’ outer regions. Small cell lung cancer as well as non-small cell lung cancer are two forms of lung cancer that grow and spread in various ways:
Non-small cell lung cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer is far more prevalent than small cell lung cancer, because it develops and spreads more slowly. Non-small cell lung cancer is categorized into three kinds based on the cells from which it grows:
It begins to grow towards the lung’s periphery and might vary in size as well as rate of growth. This is the most frequent kind of lung cancer among smokers and nonsmokers alike.
Squamous cell carcinoma
It normally begins in one of the main breathing passages in the chest’s center. Lung tumors can range in size from very small to extremely large.
Large cell carcinoma
It generally begins in the lung’s periphery, expands quickly, and is usually quite widespread when discovered.
Small cell lung cancer
Small cell lung cancer, which accounts for around 15% of all lung malignancies, is less prevalent than non-small cell lung cancer. This kind of lung cancer spreads fast, is likely progressed at the time of diagnosis, and swiftly spreads to certain other parts of the human body.
Chest malignancies are rare
There are about a dozen different types of rare tumors that can form in the chest, and they can start from the lung or not. Carcinoid tumors (typically found in a big airway) and malignant mesothelioma (which arises from the pleura, or lining of the lung) are two less common kinds.
Mesothelioma is a cancer of the mesothelium, the covering surrounded by a membrane the majority of the body’s internal organs. Only around 3,000 people are diagnosed with this rare cancer each year, and it mainly occurs in the mesothelium covering the lungs (pleura), but it can also occur in the pericardium, which surrounds the heart. Mesothelioma usually develops decades after exposure to asbestos.
Stages of Lung Cancer
Cancer staging refers to how far cancer has progressed throughout the body and how serious it is. Staging aids healthcare professionals and patients in determining the best course of treatment.
A most basic stage method is as follows:
Where the cancer is contained inside a small region
A malignancy that has spread to adjacent tissues or lymph nodes
When the cancer that has spread to other body parts
The TNM staging method is similar to this. Healthcare specialists evaluate the tumor’s growth & grown, as well as if it has migrated to the lymph nodes or if it has spread further.
Stages of Lung Cancer
Cancer that is occult, or hidden, may not show up on imaging scans, yet malignant cells may be found in phlegm or mucus.
Stage 0: Only the top layers of cells lining the airways contain aberrant cells.
Stage 1: A tumor exists in the lung, but it is less than 4 cm in diameter and has not migrated to other areas of the body.
Stage 2: The tumor has spread to adjacent tissues and lymph nodes and is 7 cm or smaller.
Stage 3: The cancer has progressed to lymph nodes as well as other regions of the lung and its surroundings.
Stage 4: Cancer is spreading to other regions of the body, like the bones or the brain.
Stages of Small cell lung cancer
SCLC has its own classification system. Limited and extensive phases relate to whether the cancer has spread either in or outside of lungs.
The disease affecting only one side of the chest in this stage, though it may be present in the some nearby lymph nodes.
According to the American Cancer Society, one-third of persons with this cancer type discover they have cancer when it is still in its early stages. Radiation therapy can be used to treat it as a single region by health experts.
The cancer has progressed beyond one side of the chest at the advanced stage. It has the potential to impact the other lungs as well as other sections of the body.
Diagnosing of liver cancer-
Your doctor may use a variety of tools to make a diagnosis, including:
- A health records, including inquiries about your symptoms
- A family background
- A physical examination
- A chest x-ray or a chest CT scan are examples of imaging exams.
- Blood and sputum testing are examples of lab tests.
- A pulmonary biopsy
If you have lung cancer, your doctor will conduct more tests to determine how far the disease has progressed throughout your lungs, lymph nodes, as well as the rest of your body. This is referred to as staging. Understand the type as well as stage of lung cancer you have will help your doctor determine the best treatment for you.
Lung cancer Treatment
Treatment will be determined by a number of criteria, including:
- the cancer’s type
- the location and the stage
- the individual’s overall health
- their unique preferences
All treatment approaches have the potential for side effects. A person should speak with a healthcare practitioner about the best option for them, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative.
The following are some therapeutic options:
- Part or all of a lung is removed during surgery.
- Chemotherapy is a chemical treatment that kills cancer cells while shrinking tumors.
- High-energy rays are used in radiation therapy to eliminate malignant cells.
- A healthcare expert inserts a tiny needle and utilizes an electric charge to eliminate cancer cells in radiofrequency ablation.
- To stop tumor growth, tailored therapy is used to target a certain behavior.
- Immunotherapy aids the body’s fight against cancer cells.
- palliative care, which includes pain treatment, oxygen therapy, and other services to help a person manage their symptoms.
As the person’s needs change, a healthcare practitioner will collaborate with them to modify their treatment plan.
Is it possible to prevent lung cancer?
Lung cancer can be prevented by avoiding the following risk factors:
- Smoking cessation. Don’t start smoking if you don’t already.
- Reduce your workplace exposure to harmful substances.
- Reduce your radon exposure. Radon tests can reveal if your home has excessive radon levels. You can either purchase a test kit or pay an expert to perform the test for you.
The opinions presented in this article should not be regarded as a replacement for medical advice. For more information, please contact your treating physician.