Health Care

Ebola Virus Disease: Widespread Disastrous illness

Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an uncommon but fatal disease caused by the Ebola virus. It is transmitted from one individual to another through contaminated bodily fluids. Fever, discomfort, and bleeding are all signs of Ebola. Treatment increases the likelihood of surviving.

Ebola is a rare but lethal virus that causes fever, body aches, diarrhea, and, in some cases, internal and external bleeding. The disease was previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, but it is now known as Ebola virus.
It kills up to 90% of those who become infected.

What Is Ebola Virus Disease?

Ebola is a virus that causes the disease.

It’s a rare, highly infectious (easy to transfer to others), and frequently fatal sickness that spreads by exposure to infectious bodily fluids (from a sick person or from objects contaminated with body fluids, even door knobs).

Fever, discomfort, diarrheic, and bleeding are all symptoms of Ebola.

It has been reported in Central and West Africa, although visitors from this location could carry and transmit it. The most severe outbreaks have been reported in Liberia, Guinea, and Sierra Leone between 2014 and 2016.

On instance, 50% of those infected with the Ebola virus die.

Medications and symptom therapy increase the chances of survival. Controlling outbreaks aids in preventing the spread of the Ebola virus disease.

What Causes Ebola Virus Disease?

Viruses from the Ebolavirus and Filoviridae families cause Ebola. Ebola is classified as a zoonosis, which means that the virus is found in animals and spreads to people.

It’s unclear how well this transmission can occur at the start of a human pandemic.

Fruit bats of the Pteropodid family are suspected to be natural Ebola virus hosts. Ebola virus disease is spread to humans through direct contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or even other bodily fluids of animals such as fruit bats, chimps, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope, or porcupines that have been found sick or dead in the jungle.

Ebola virus disease then transmits from one to person by direct touch (broken skin or mucous membranes) with:

  • Blood or bodily fluids of an Ebola patient who is ill or has died
  • Objects infected with body fluids (such as blood, feaces, or vomit) from an Ebola patient or the body of an Ebola patient who died

Despite serving cases of suspected or proven Ebola Virus Disease, health care workers have routinely become contaminated. When infection prevention and control protocols are not carefully followed, this happens due to close contact with the patient.

Ebola virus disease transmission could also be aided by burial procedures that entail physical touch with the deceased’s body.

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People are contagious as long as even the virus is present in their blood.

Pregnant women who contract Ebola and recuperate may even have the virus in their breastmilk, as well as in other prenatal fluids of an infected person. This puts the baby they’re carrying, as well as others, at risk. Women who become pregnant after experiencing Ebola should not be at risk of passing the infection on to their children.

If an Ebola-infected breastfeeding mother desires to resume breastfeeding, she should be encouraged to do so. Before she could even start, her breast milk must be screened for Ebola.

Ebola virus disease can be spread between people in a variety of ways, including:

  • Direct contact with the infected blood and body fluids, secretions, organs, or other body fluids though damaged skin and mucous membranes.
  • Indirect interaction with such fluid-contaminated surroundings.
  • Contaminated things, such as needles, are exposed.
  • Mourners get physical touch with the deceased’s corpse during burial procedures.
  • Exposure to the sperm of Ebola patients or those that have healed from the disease – the virus can be transferred through sperm for up to 7 weeks after recovery.
  • Contact involving patients who have EVD, whether suspected or proven – healthcare personnel have indeed been contaminated while dealing with patients on a regular basis.

Ebola cannot be transmitted through insect bites, according to scientific data.

What Is The History Of Ebola Virus Disease?

The first instances of Ebola became reported in 1976 in Yambuku, Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), and Nzara, Sudan, both near the Ebola River.

Ebola epidemics or asymptomatic cases in humans and animals have occurred periodically ever since due infectious outbreaks, laboratory contamination, and accidents in the following places:

  • The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
  • Sudan (South Sudan)
  • Senegal
  • United Kingdom
  • United States (U.S.)
  • Philippines
  • Italy
  • Spain
  • Gabon
  • Ivory Coast
  • South Africa
  • Russia
  • Uganda
  • Guinea
  • Liberia
  • Sierra Leone
Ebola Virus Disease: Widespread Disastrous illness

The 2014 Outbreak of ebola virus disease, which mostly affected Guinea, northern Liberia, and Sierra Leone, was the biggest in the world. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) believes that more than 11,000 people died as a result of the pandemic, with almost all of them happening in West Africa.

There have also been two importation cases in the United States, one of which resulted in death, and two domestically obtained cases in healthcare personnel, according to sources.

In Nigeria, Mali, and Senegal, a small number of cases were recorded, but health officials were able to handle the outbreak and prevent it from spreading further.

Chronology Of Previous Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks

YearCountryEVDCasesDeathsCase fatality 
2021GuineaZaireOngoing——- —— 
2021Democratic Republic of the CongoZaireOngoing——- —— 
2020Democratic Republic of the CongoZaire1305542%
2018-2020Democratic Republic of the CongoZaire3481229966%
 2018Democratic Republic of the CongoZaire 54 33 61% 
 2017Democratic Republic of the Congo Zaire 50% 
2015ItalyZaire100%
2014SpainZaire100%
2014UKZaire100%
2014USAZaire4125%
2014SenegalZaire100%
2014MaliZaire8675%
2014NigeriaZaire20840%
2014-2016Sierra LeoneZaire14124*3956*28%
2014-2016LiberiaZaire10675*4809*45%
2014-2016GuineaZaire3811*2543*67%
2012Democratic Republic of the CongoBundibugyo572951%
2012UgandaSudan7457%
2012UgandaSudan241771%
2011UgandaSudan11100%
2008Democratic Republic of the CongoZaire321444%
2007UgandaBundibugyo1493725%
2007Democratic Republic of the CongoZaire26418771%
2005CongoZaire121083%
2004SudanSudan17741%
2003 (Nov-Dec)CongoZaire352983%
2003 (Jan-Apr)CongoZaire14312890%
2001-2002CongoZaire594475%
2001-2002GabonZaire655382%
2000UgandaSudan42522453%
1996South Africa (ex-Gabon)Zaire11100%
1996 (Jul-Dec)GabonZaire604575%
1996 (Jan-Apr)GabonZaire312168%
1995Democratic Republic of the CongoZaire31525481%
1994Côte d’IvoireTaï Forest100%
1994GabonZaire523160%
1979SudanSudan342265%
1977Democratic Republic of the CongoZaire11100%
1976SudanSudan28415153%
1976Democratic Republic of the CongoZaire318280 88%
Ebola Virus Disease: Widespread Disastrous illness

Risk Factors For Ebola Virus Disease

Ebola is a rare disease with a minimal chance of infection. There’s an increased chance of getting infected if people decide:

  • Travelling to areas of Africa where Ebola cases have indeed been verified.
  • Using monkeys imported African or the Philippines for animal research.
  • Offering medical or personal attention to those who could have been infected with the Ebola virus.
  • People who have now been infected with Ebola are being prepared for burial.

What Are The Symptoms Of Ebola Virus Disease?

The Duration Between Ebola Infection And The Start Of Symptoms Ranges From 2 To 21 Days, With 8-10 Days Being The Most Prevalent. The Following Are Some Of The Symptoms And Signs:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Joint and muscle aches
  • Weakness
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach pain
  • Lack of appetite

Some people may have the following symptoms:

  • Rash
  • Red eyes
  • Hiccups
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Bleeding inside and outside of the body

How Is Ebola Virus Disease Diagnosed?

Theoretically, it might be hard to see the difference between Ebola Virus Disease and other infectious disorders like malaria, typhoid fever, and meningitis. Many of the symptoms of pregnancy and Ebola are very similar. Due to the obvious risks to the unborn child, pregnant women should indeed be checked as soon as possible if Ebola is anticipated.

The Main Diagnostic Procedures Have Been Used To Establish That Diseases Are Caused By Ebola Virus Infection:

  • Immunosorbent assay using antibody collection and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • Antigen-capture tests are used to detect antigens.
  • Test for serum neutralization
  • Polymerase chain reaction of reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR) virus isolation by cell culture assay electron microscopy

The implementation of diagnostic tests should indeed be done with care, taking into account technological requirements, disease frequency and frequency, and the social and medical consequences of test results.

Diagnostic tests that have already been subjected to an impartial and worldwide examination are generally advised to be used.

The Following Tests Are Now Recommended By The WHO:

  • Nucleic acid tests (NAT) that are automated or semi-automated for regular diagnostic monitoring.
  • Rapid antigen detection tests to be used in remote locations without access to NATs.
  • Reactive testing should be validated with NATs, although these tests are indicated for filtration as part of monitoring efforts.

The Following Specimens Are Recommended For Diagnostic Test:

  • Whole blood from live patients with symptoms was taken in ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA).
  • Oral fluid specimens obtained from deceased individuals or even when sample collection is not feasible are preserved in universal dispersing agent.

Patient specimens provide a high biohazard risk, hence testing procedure on non-inactivated specimens should indeed be done under the strictest biological confinement settings possible. When transporting biological specimens both nationally and globally, the triple wrapping method must be used.

Treatment Of Ebola Virus Disease

There is currently no cure for Ebola Virus Disease. A number of investigational drugs are currently being evaluated.

The Major Aim Of Treatment Is To Keep The Symptoms Under Control. Among The Possibilities Are:

  • Getting enough water to avoid dehydration
  • Salts and other substances in the body are regulated and replaced.
  • Keeping blood pressure in check
  • Taking medication to alleviate symptoms such as fever, diarrheic, nausea, and pain
  • Obtaining oxygen
  • Taking care of other diseases

The need of close monitoring and care by healthcare practitioners cannot be overstated. An Ebola Virus Disease  patient may require intensive care unit (ICU) services.

Ebola Virus Disease Vaccines

The World Health Organization (WHO) held an experts meeting in October 2014 to evaluate, test, and ultimately license two possible Ebola vaccines:

cAd3-ZEBOV

This vaccine was produced by Glaxo Smith Kline in conjunction with the National Institute of Allergy and Contagious Diseases in the United States (NIH). It employs an adenovirus vector generated from chimps with an Ebola virus genome added.

rVSV-ZEBOV

The Public Health Agency of Canada in Winnipeg collaborated with New Link Genetics, a business in Ames, Iowa, to develop this. The vaccine is based on an attenuated virus derived from animals, with an Ebola virus gene replacing one of its genes.

The WHO-funded as well as Ebola ca Suffit vaccine had % effectiveness in the trial, which supposedly occurred in Guinea and included 4,000 participants, according to early results released by Lancet Trusted Source on July 31, 2015. In February 2017, the entire results of this trial became published in Lancet Trusted Source.

The next stage is to make those vaccinations accessible as quickly as possible – and in sufficient amounts – in order to safeguard vital frontline workers and influence the course of the outbreak.

Ebola Virus Disease: Widespread Disastrous illness

Care For People Who Recovered from Ebola Virus Disease

People who’ve already recovered from Ebola have reported a variety of medical repercussions, including mental health problems. Some body fluids, such as sperm, pregnancy-related fluids, and breast milk, may contain Ebola virus disease.

Ebola survivors require extensive care to address their medical and emotional needs, as well as to reduce the danger of Ebola virus disease transmission. To meet these needs, a system or for the implementation for those who have survived from Ebola might be established.

Some patients who have healed from Ebola virus disease have been known to have Ebola virus disease remain in completely impervious locations. The testicles, everything inside the the eye, and the central nervous system are among these locations.

The virus survives in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and foetus of women who were infected during pregnant. The virus might remain in breast milk in women who were infected while breastfeeding.

Relapse-symptomatic sickness for somebody who has survived from Ebola Virus Disease is a rare but recognised occurrence caused by enhanced virus assembly in a localised place. The reasons behind this phenomena are still unknown.

Some bodily functions may give positive results on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for Ebola virus for more than 9 months in a tiny percentage of patients, according to studies of viral persistence.

More data and studies on the dangers of sexual transmission are required, especially on the frequency of functional and easily transmitted virus in sperm throughout time. In the meantime, WHO suggests, based on current evidence:

  • Unless their semen has been tested negative twice, all Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should get counselling to guarantee safer sexual practices. Condoms should indeed be offered to survivors.
  • Male Ebola survivors should be provided semen testing three months after onset of sickness, and then every month after that until their semen tests negative for virus twice by RT-PCR, with a one-week delay between tests for those who test positive.
  • Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should either abstain from all forms of sex or practice safer sex by using condoms correctly and consistently until their semen has tested negative twice.
  • After testing negative for Ebola, survivors could resume normal sexual habits without danger of the virus spreading.
  • WHO suggests that male Ebola virus disease survivors practice safe sex and hygiene for 12 months from of the onset of symptoms or until their semen tests negative for Ebola virus twice, based on additional analysis of ongoing research and consideration by the WHO Advisory Group on the Ebola Virus Disease Reaction.
  • Survivors should exercise great hand and personal grooming by quickly and thoroughly cleaning with soap and water after any physical interaction with semen, including masturbation, until their semen has been tested negative for Ebola twice. Used condoms should indeed be handled and discarded of carefully during this time to avoid contact with seminal fluids.
  • Respect, dignity, and empathy should be provided to all survivors, their partners, and their families.

Prevention And Control Of Ebola Virus Disease

If people live in a region where there is an active Ebola Virus disease outbreak, overall chances of contracting the disease are increased. Ebola virus disease outbreaks are almost always seen in African countries.

For patients who are at high risk of infection, a vaccination has also been produced.

To Avoid Contracting Ebola, Stay Away From:

  • Contact with contaminated bodily fluids.
  • Items that could be contaminated with diseased bodily fluids.
  • A trip to an Ebola treatment center or a hospital.
  • Getting close to the body of someone that has died from the Ebola virus.
  • Bats, monkeys, and chimps are among the species with which you may come into contact.
  • consuming bushmeat (the meat of wild animals such as bats, antelope and monkeys).

To Avoid Contracting Or Transmitting Ebola, Healthcare Workers Must Take Extreme Precautions. Care Providers Could Take The Following Precautions To Avoid Contracting Ebola:

  • Equipment for sterilization.
  • Disposable equipment and materials are used.
  • Hands are being washed.
  • Gloves, masks, glasses, and other protective gear are worn.

Care Professionals Can Help Stop The Ebola Virus Disease From Spreading By:

  • Disinfecting the residences of Ebola patients. Bleach and hospital-grade disinfectants can destroy and sterilize it.
  • Isolation of Ebola patients.
  • People who have already had interaction with an Ebola patient are being tested and monitored.
  • Keeping an eye out for fresh Ebola virus disease cases.

Can Ebola Virus Disease Be Cured?

Ebola virus kills almost half of those who contract it. Since the 1970s, when scientists first identified Ebola, the mortality rate has increased dramatically. Traditionally, up to 90% of those who became ill died. New monoclonal therapy give reason to believe that survival rates will continue to increase.

Are There Log Term Effects Of Ebola Virus Disease?

Survivors of the Ebola Virus Disease might experience long-term mental and physical issues.

Physical Issues Include The Following:

  • Pain in the abdomen (stomach).
  • Arthritis.
  • Erectile dysfunction is a condition that affects men.
  • Blurry vision, dry eyes, or eye pain are all symptoms of eye issues.
  • Headache.
  • Hearing loss is a common problem.
  • Pain in the muscles or bones.
  • Periods of suffering (dysmenorrhea).

The Following Are Some Of The Psychological Impact:

  • Anxiety.
  • Depression.
  • Memory loss and PTSD are two of the most common symptoms of PTSD.

Living With Ebola Virus Disease

In general, Ebola Virus Disease causes death in around half of those who contract it. Even if a person recovers from EVD, they may still remain contagious. The Ebola virus can survive for a long time in some bodily fluids.

Men, for example, can carry the virus through their sperm for up to three months after symptoms develop. Throughout that time, they should avoid having intercourse, especially oral sex. Breast milk, amniotic fluid, ocular fluid, and spinal column fluid could all contain the virus.

Survivors of Ebola may experience long-term repercussions from the illness. Fatigue, muscle aches, stomach pain, and vision issues are all possible symptoms.

Ebola Virus Disease: Widespread Disastrous illness

Who Is Most At The Risk Of Ebola Virus Disease?

All who care after infected individuals, such as assistance workers, as well as those who encounter their blood or bodily fluids, such as hospital staff, laboratory professionals, and family members, are the individuals who are at more risk. See that the World Health Organization’s Ebola virus material for the most up-to-date knowledge on Ebola in Africa.

Is Ebola An Airborne Disease?

The virus that causes Ebola does not spread through into the air. The Ebola virus is not disseminated by minute droplets that stay in the air once an infection is present, as it is with a cold or the flu.

Is Ebola Still Around 2021?

The DRC Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization proclaimed the Outbreak of Ebola in North Kivu Province to be over on May 3, 2021.

What Is Another Name For Ebola?

Ebola virus disease is also known as Ebola fever, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and Ebola virus disease. The Ebola virus causes a type of hemorrhagic fever that is particularly deadly and is characterized by a high fever, severe gastrointestinal distress, and bleeding.

Can Ebola Be Asymptomatic?

Some Ebola infections may be asymptomatic, according to evidence, with Sero prevalence estimates of annual uses ranging from 1.4 to 19.4 % . A recent comprehensive review and meta-analysis found that 27.1 % of EVD infections were asymptomatic (95 % confidence interval: 14.5 %–39.6 %).

What Are 5 Types Of Ebola?

Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Ta Forest virus (Ta Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus are the five Ebola virus species recognized, four of which are known to cause disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); and Bundibug (Bundibugyo ebolavirus).

Conclusion

Ebola viruses cause hemorrhagic fever, a condition that can be caused by other viruses as well, but Ebola produces one of the most lethal forms. In addition to the other symptoms of hemorrhagic fever, which include fever, headache, muscle pain, weakness, vomiting, and diarrhea, more severe cases can include blood vessel damage and extensive internal and external bleeding.

There are currently no approved drugs or vaccines to treat EVD, but experimental vaccines and therapeutic applications are being tested. Recovery appears to be affected by how much virus a person was initially exposed to, how quickly treatment is initiated, and the patient’s age and immune response.

Early supportive care, such as maintaining body fluids and electrolytes and monitoring blood pressure, can improve survival chances and give the body’s immune system enough time to fight off the virus.
Younger people appear to recover faster than older people. Those who survive develop antibodies that can last for at least ten years. Long-term complications, such as joint and vision problems, occur in some survivors.

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